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Syneresis development in yoghurt is a natural phenomenon caused by water or liquid being “squeezed” out of the protein gel during shelf life, disrupting its structure-function network.
Texturisers such as starches and hydrocolloids are used to control syneresis development. However, excess or unexpected syneresis may occur due to the following reasons.
The main purposes of texturisers such as hydrocolloids and starches are to hold water, provide body, improve texture and prevent syneresis in yoghurt. However, the wrong choice of hydrocolloids or starches will have the opposite effect. Using a less process-tolerant starch in harsh manufacturing conditions — e.g. a yoghurt mix heated at 70oC — will cause most starches with lower process-tolerance to fragment during homogenisation. As a result, the starch functionality cannot be optimised to stabilise the yoghurt. Another example would be that starches suitable for an upstream process may not be suitable for a downstream process. Therefore, it is critical to select starches that suit the different manufacturing conditions.
Severe processing conditions - PURITY™ 87 starch
Moderate processing conditions– THERMTEX™ starch and NOVATION® 8300 starch
The likelihood of syneresis in yoghurt is higher when the amount of milk solids is too low. Increasing the amount of solids and/or protein will provide more surface area for gel formation, preventing syneresis. Skim milk powder, whey protein concentrates and caseinates are commonly used during the manufacturing process to provide higher amounts of protein. Another alternative would be to remove water from the milk, either under vacuum or via membrane filtration.
A high incubation temperature prevents the formation of a stable structure-function protein network with water binding capability.
This leads to a disruption of the protein network, where it no longer performs as efficiently to restrict the movement of free water in a yoghurt mass.
These quality issues are typically the result of using an unsuitable texturiser, having too high an incubation temperature, or not ensuring adequate milk protein hydration.
Starches will contribute to a grainy appearance if their granules are fragmented during processing. This issue is more prominent in low-fat or fat-free yoghurt. Therefore, selecting a texturiser suitable for the process is critical.
Severe processing conditions - PURITY™ 87 starch
Moderate processing conditions - THERMTEX™ starch and NOVATION® 8300 starch
Hydrocolloids help to provide smooth texture in yoghurt. However, an unsuitable hydrocolloid can have the opposite effect. For example, excessive amounts of some seed gums will lead to sedimentation issues or a grainy mouthfeel in yoghurt.
Recommended products: Dairyblend YG AG NGMO, Dairyblend YG OG 6
This will increase the rate of fermentation, which in turn causes the yoghurt culture to produce acid too quickly. When this happens, the casein will be affected and it will not be able to form a viscous and smooth three-dimensional network in the yoghurt. The casein does not have sufficient time to dissociate evenly and as pH drops further, colloidal calcium phosphates solubilisation is also affected. These affect the coagulation of the casein at the isoelectric point.
These are the most common causes:
The selection of a suitable texturiser is the key step to overcome this quality issue. A thorough understanding of the processing formulation and condition is critical to the selection of a suitable texturiser.
Recommended products: Severe processing conditions: PURITY™ 87 starch
Moderate processing conditions: THERMTEX® starch and NOVATION® 8300 starch
To avoid textural issues, keep shearing or agitation to a minimum in the vat, during cooling and before filling. White mass being pumped through plate heat exchangers or packaging equipment will result in lower viscosity. Therefore, the selection of the correct pumps for moving soft products such as yoghurt is important for minimising excess shear.
It is important to ensure there are sufficient milk solids in the final product and that the targeted level of milk solids is met. There are two likely instances where the milk solids could get out of specification. The first is if an improperly calibrated load cell is used during the weighing or metering in of the milk or milk solids. The second may be due to dilution caused by the water used to push milk through the lines. As the pumps cannot run dry, there will always be some dilution at the beginning and end of the pumping. The manufacturer must ascertain a precise time for pump shutdown to minimise dilution.
This issue is usually caused by over-fermentation, and this can be countered in two ways. First, the manufacturer must ensure that the yoghurt is cooled effectively in order for acid generation to cease. The second way is to cease fermentation at a higher pH level so that the final pH level does not fall below the optimal level.
Gelatine is a protein-based hydrocolloid which is commonly used in yoghurt. It is extracted from animal collagen of sources such as beef, pork or fish, where the partial hydrolysis of the collagen leads to the formation of gelatine.
Gelatine 225 bloom and Gelatine 250 bloom provide unique properties to yoghurt, such as high surface sheen, firm texture and clean, fast meltaway in the mouth. They are also very effective in preventing syneresis.
If usage is 0.3% or higher with an alternate solution, the main challenge in replacing gelatine, is to do so without losing characteristics such as excellent surface sheen.
Recommended Products: PRECISA™ GEL 03 starch
LSL yoghurt has a shelf life of up to six months at ambient conditions. It undergoes double pasteurisation to achieve its extended shelf life over traditional chilled yoghurt. The first heat treatment is before the culture is added for fermentation. The mixture is treated with heat again after fermentation to prolong the shelf life. This second pasteurisation also serves to inactivate the starter culture and their enzymes to minimise post acidification. Contaminants such as yeast and mould are also inactivated during this process.
The yoghurt texture is thinner due to additional mechanical shear during the second pasteurisation. Therefore, the texturisers selected need to be more process-tolerant than those used in traditional chilled stirred yoghurt in order to achieve a similar texture.
LSL products should be reviewed by the local regulatory bodies of their respective countries as requirements vary, from country to country. The definition of a “yoghurt” product for some countries may require it to have live and active culture (microbiological flora) content.
Recommended products: NOVATION® 8300 starch, NOVATION ENDURA® 0100 starch and PURITY™ 87 starch
Ingredion experts in formulation, application knowhow and processing have developed numerous solutions to address yoghurt formulation challenges such as:
We work closely with you to thoroughly understand the processing conditions as well as the requirements for texture, labels, sensory attributes and shelf life, amongst others, in order to make the best-informed recommendation.
Speak to us to discover how our wide range of texturisers, which includes modified and clean label starches and hydrocolloids; customised solutions to replace gelatine in yoghurt; and texturiser solutions for LSL yoghurts — together with our process and formulation expertise — to create an innovative, consumer-winning yoghurt product.
Cheese curds and rennet casein are highly functional in processed cheese formulations, but are costly dairy protein ingredients. Hence, reducing their quantity will lower recipe cost with the build-back of textural properties achieved through the use of texturisers.
Ingredion has a broad range of such texturisers. With the PRECISA™ series, manufacturers can produce processed cheese of any firmness. In addition, the PRECISA™ series is also bland in taste, and combines easily with other ingredients in the typical cheese manufacturing process.
Typically, you can reduce reliance on cheese curds and other dairy ingredients by 20% or more to contain cost, and retain the physical character of a cheese with the use of PRECISA™ 630S starch. With its good gelling properties, PRECISA™ 630S starch builds back the cheese texture to the desired firmness.
In some cases, manufacturers can reduce cheese curd usage by as much as 50% to further improve margins. In such cases, Ingredion offers a broad range of solutions that can be customised to meet textural requirements.
Creating an emulsified product with taste and textural appeal is a key goal of dairy-free cheese product manufacturing.
N-CREAMER® 46 starch has excellent emulsification properties. When combined with the PRECISA™ series and suitable vegetable fat, it is able to create a texture similar to dairy-content processed cheese.
N-CREAMERM® 180 maltodextrin is a specialty maltodextrin with a fat-mimetic functionality. Unlike regular maltodextrin, it creates a fat-like creamy mouthfeel and adds body to spreadable cheese, making it an ideal choice for fat replacement in dairy products.
Ingredion works closely with you to create a cheese product that meets your specifications and performance requirements. You get the expertise you need across the value chain. Be it consumer insights, applied research, applications knowhow or process technology, we utilise instrumental and sensory science approaches to help you obtain your ideal recipe, integrating our solutions with your processing conditions.
As a value-added service, our on-site CULINOLOGY® team of food formulators can help to create food prototypes with great taste and texture using your cheese products.
In order to make a good SCC, the emulsifiers or stabilisers used must produce the desired stability, mouthfeel, texture and appearance. Skim milk powder and butter milk powder achieve these attributes but they are costly dairy ingredients. A key challenge for manufacturers is finding the optimal way to lower recipe costs while ensuring the quality of the SCC remains high. Ingredion provides innovative solutions that deliver high quality at a lower cost to manufacturers.
SCC manufacturers can use our Ticaloid® BD-1811 or Ticaloid® BD-1816 stabiliser systems to replace expensive dairy ingredients in their formulations. The recommended dosage ranges from 0.15% to 0.25%, depending on the protein level of the formulation.
Designed specifically for SCCs, these high-performance and cost-efficient stabiliser systems can be used to:
*Age thickening is identified by an increase in viscosity over time. If the viscosity development rate is not controlled, it could lead to quality issues in the SCC, such as gelation.
This observation, referred to as “sugar down,” can be caused by two likely reasons:
Sedimentation is prevented with Ticaloid® BD-1811 or Ticaloid® BD-1816 stabiliser systems. These stabiliser systems are able to form a hydrocolloid protein network which can effectively build up viscosity over time.
This could be due to the presence of lactose crystals having a particle size of ≥15μm. This sandiness will occur if the lactose seeding process is not conducted at the right temperature. As the lactose crystals do not dissolve quickly, they deliver a sandy mouthfeel. Lactose is a major constituent of skim milk powder and sweet whey powder, both of which are commonly used in SCC formulations.
There are leading causes of gelation in an SCC:
Ticaloid® BD-1811 and Ticaloid® BD-1816 stabiliser systems prevent gelation in an SCC by maintaining a stabilised emulsion and controlling the product’s viscosity development throughout its shelf life. Contact our experts to help you select the right stabiliser system to overcome your technical challenges, optimise costs, and deliver high performance and quality in your SCC formulation.
Casein, an insoluble dairy protein, is the foundation of sodium caseinate, which has traditionally been used as a common emulsifier for NDC manufacturers as it binds water and oil very well. Lowering the amount of sodium caseinate is a common approach to control recipe cost. In doing so, the quality of NDC emulsion can be affected.
Adding N-CREAMER® 3334 starch or NATIONAL 78-0432 starch can impart good emulsion stability and improve uniformity of oil droplets in the emulsion, thereby improving the creaminess profile of the spray dried NDC. Flavours can be added if a stronger dairy profile is desired.
N-CREAMER® 3334 starch is a cold-water soluble starch so it should be added in the aqueous phase. You can add N-CREAMER® 3334 starch to another dissolver tank if you have an additional one. Alternatively, N-CREAMER® 3334 starch can be introduced into the mixing tank together with other ingredients before the addition of glucose syrup.
N-CREAMER® 46 starch is ideal for use in acid-stable NDC of pH below 4.6, as well as in acidified milk beverages to prevent precipitation. With the presence of acid and salt in acidic food products, e.g. tom yum instant noodles and acidified juice drinks, regular NDC containing caseinate is not stable. By fully replacing caseinate with N-CREAMER® 46 starch, creamer stability against acid can be improved.
The choice of ingredients used, the emulsion quality and processing conditions of NDC are all critical considerations to overcome oiling in coffee. Sodium caseinate, emulsifiers and Ingredion specialty starch for spray-dried creamer such as N-CREAMER® 46 starch provide emulsification functionality and emulsion stability. Sufficient homogenisation pressure and shear are needed to create a small and uniform oil droplet distribution in the wet mix before spray drying. The desirable oil droplet size should be less than 1µm in a stable emulsion.
NATIONAL 78-0432 starch can be used in sodium caseinate-free, vegan NDC. The choice of emulsifiers and the processing techniques may need to be optimised to achieve stable emulsion with oil droplets of less than 1µm.
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