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Carrageenan has traditionally been used to stabilise dairy beverages because of its unique interactions with protein. However, the ingredient has fallen out of favour with some due to consumer perceptions and recent proposed changes to the organic standards that would eliminate carrageenan from organic foods. TIC Gums, an Ingredion Company, has developed a line of stabilisers that provides the same benefits of added texture, suspension and stability.
Recommended products: Ticaloid® PRO 192 AGD
In an acidic environment, both dairy and non-dairy proteins are susceptible to degradation, which can result in negative textural attributes such as lumping. To help prevent this, hydrocolloids can be added to provide protection and stability during processing and over the shelf life of the product. As an added benefit, hydrocolloids can also help reduce the awareness of particulates and improve mouthfeel.
Recommended products: TIC Pretested® Apple Pectin AM 800, Dairyblend Acidified Beverage 120
Hydrocolloids will help to mask grittiness and provide a smooth, creamy mouthfeel. They will also aid in the suspension of particulates to prolong the time it takes for the beverage to separate.
Recommended products: Ticaloid® Ultrasmooth CL, Ticaloid® OG Ultrasmooth CL (organic compliant)
Yes, we have found that some hydrocolloids, such as pectin and gum acacia, will aid in building back mouthfeel in reduced-sugar beverages with minimal impact on viscosity.
Recommended products: TIC Pretested® Pectin 1400, Pre-Hydrated® Gum Arabic FT
This gelling is due to a phenomenon known as age gelation. Many RTD beverages use UHT processing, and during this process, it’s believed that the proteins likely form links to one another, which later results in gelation. TIC Gums has developed stabiliser solutions that are designed to suppress age gelation in these shelf-stable beverages thereby increasing the products' shelf life. We have created variations that are specifically intended for either dairy protein or non-dairy alternatives.
Recommended products: Ticaloid® PRO 192 AGD (dairy), Ticaloid® PRO 181 AG (non-dairy)
Yes, we offer a wide variety of organic and non-GMO solutions to meet our customers' label requirements. When deciding which one of its product offerings to classify as non-GMO, TIC Gums applies the following internal definition: “A finished product derived from ingredients that are believed to contain no genetically modified organisms and no more than 0.9% material derived from genetically modified organisms resulting from adventitious contamination.” This certification relates to the European Commission labelling requirements, as the United States has not adopted any such requirement. For more advice about which system will work best, we recommend contacting your local Ingredion sales representatives or call us at +65 6872 6006 for technical assistance.
Recommended products (for beverages): Ticaloid® PRO OG D192, Ticaloid® OG Ultrasmooth CL
When selecting a stabiliser solution, it is important to consider any processing conditions that may need to be met to reach the gum’s full functionality. While we have many cold water-soluble options available, we also carry products that require UHT/HTST temperatures to hydrate and activate. Gellan, for example, will require heating to at least 82–85°C to fully activate. With regards to emulsion stability, our emulsifying solutions, such as gum acacia, will require homogenisation or the use of a colloid mill to create long-term stability. Making sure that the necessary conditions are met will ensure proper functionality and will lead to a more stable end product.
Hydrocolloids begin to hydrate nearly as soon as they are added to water, and sometimes hydration occurs before the hydrocolloids is fully dispersed. This can result in the formation of lumps, or “fish eyes,” that have dry gum powder on the inside where the water could not penetrate. When dissolving any hydrocolloids in water, keep in mind that the most important time for the hydrocolloids is the first three minutes after addition. Giving the hydrocolloids five to 10 minutes to hydrate makes a dramatic difference in the level of hydrocolloids needed and in the functional properties it exhibits. There are also a few tips you can follow to help prevent lumps from forming:
It can be difficult to suspend higher levels of protein for an extended period of time, but with the superior suspension capabilities of Ticaloid® PRO 192 AGD and Ticaloid® PRO 192 AGD High Viscosity, product developers can stabilise beverages containing protein content as high as 8–10%.<
Emulsion stability is a major challenge in beverages. Since most emulsions are kinetically stable but thermodynamically unstable, they separate eventually. Emulsifiers play two roles: 1) to reduce interfacial tension and 2) to stabilise emulsions over shelf life. A variety of factors impact emulsion stability over shelf life, including emulsion droplet size and particle size distribution, the density difference between oil phase and water phase, emulsion viscosity and storage conditions. We recommend investigating all of these factors to find the root cause of your emulsion stability issue.
The functionality of weighting agents in an oil system is to increase the density of the oil phase close to the water phase. Removing weighting agents can expedite emulsion separation due to increased density difference between the water and oil phase. It’s possible to manage the stability of the emulsion while removing the weighting agents. Ingredion has developed a line of emulsifiers that enable food scientists to remove the weighting agent from their systems while maintaining the stability of the emulsions.
Recommended products: PURITY GUM® Ultra high-performance emulsifier, Q-NATURALE® high-efficiency emulsifier
Emulsions tend to retrograde (or increase in viscosity or gel) when stored under refrigeration, as retrogradation is favoured by low temperatures and high starch concentrations. The rate of retrogradation depends on the type of starch base and chain configuration. A modified starch with a highly branched amylopectin structure can help inhibit retrogradation. However, certain modifications may create outermost short-chain branches in amylopectin, and the rearrangement and association of these outermost short branches can result in retrogradation.
To resolve this technical challenge, Ingredion has developed novel modified starch-based emulsifiers that inhibit retrogradation and perform well under refrigerated conditions, due to their highly branched amylopectin structure.
Recommended products: PURITY GUM® 2000 starch, and PURITY GUM® Ultra high-performance emulsifier
To enable a clear beverage, your best choice would be an emulsion with a very fine particle size. It usually takes an emulsifier with a unique structure to achieve the desired particle size. Ingredion sourced a naturally derived emulsifier from quillaja saponaria Molina (plant extract), called Q-NATURALE® high-efficiency emulsifier that is processed through water purification. Through the unique structure, this emulsifier can emulsify the oil droplets to sufficiently small size and rendering the beverage clear. In addition, these high oil load systems can be made without weighting agents and still produce stable and fine particle-sized emulsions for use in clear beverages.
Recommended products: Q-NATURALE® high-efficiency emulsifier
Many factors can impact the opacity (turbidity) of a beverage. For example, oil type, concentration and oil droplet size will all play a role in the opacity of the end product. Opacity typically reaches a maximum when the mean emulsion particle size is between 0.20 and 0.40 μm (for citrus-based emulsions). TIC Pretested™ Gum Arabic Spray Dry Powder is the best choice for opaque beverages as the oil droplet particle sizes for gum acacia-based emulsions fall into the ideal range required to create beverages with maximum turbidity. The oil droplet particle size remains in the ideal range over the shelf life of the beverage, leading to long-lasting opacity in the beverage product. Gum acacia is a naturally sourced, non-GMO, Kosher- and halal-certified emulsifier. It is processed without the use of enzymes or process aids, and can be offered certified organic with Canadian and EU equivalency.
Recommend product: TIC Pretested™ Gum Arabic Spray Dry Powder (gum acacia)
TIC Gums, an Ingredion Company, offers an agglomerated gum acacia designed to quickly disperse in solution, eliminating lumping and hydrating faster. Pre-Hydrated™ Gum Arabic Spray Dry Powder can be ready for oil addition in as little as 45 minutes of mixing. Pre-Hydrated™ Gum Arabic Spray Dry Powder is an easy-to-handle, essentially dust-free powder that helps to promote a safer working environment for powder handlers. Agglomerated gum acacia retains all of the functionality of a standard spray dried product and can also be offered as organic.
Recommended products: Pre-Hydrated™ Gum Arabic Spray Dry Powder (gum acacia); Pre-Hydrated™ TICorganic™ Arabic SD (gum acacia)
Food scientists find it challenging to make high oil load emulsions with traditional emulsifiers due to the increase in viscosity, which makes emulsions difficult to process. Traditional emulsifiers are usually formulated at a 1:1 ratio of emulsifier to oil. Ingredion has developed products that enable high oil load emulsions with both naturally sourced emulsifier and modified starch options. PURITY GUM® Ultra high-performance emulsifier uses a patented technology that optimises the molecular structure of the starch, making it a powerful emulsifier with two to three times the emulsifying power of traditional beverage emulsifiers. Therefore, a lower usage level is needed, which keeps the emulsion’s viscosity that can still be easily processed.
Recommended products: PURITY GUM® Ultra high-performance emulsifier
Concentrated emulsions are most often produced in bulk quantity and shipped to bottlers, where emulsions are added to beverage syrup consisting of water, sweeteners, acid, preservative, etc. This practice saves companies from shipping more water than necessary, allowing their operation to be more efficient and sustainable. Therefore, a desirable emulsifier needs to deliver both flavour (and colour) and turbidity effectively, and maximise the oil load and minimise water usage in emulsion concentrates. The cost of the ingredient, processing, inventory, packaging and shipping are all part of the final cost of emulsions. Ingredion has developed a product that can effectively reduce the cost across the supply chain by producing a high oil load emulsion.
Recommended products: PURITY GUM® Ultra high-performance emulsifier
Every beverage application is unique, and needs throughout the entire product lifecycle should be fully considered. A product developer must consider the practicalities of the entire beverage development process, from consumer trends, concept development, production, logistics and sales channel to final consumption.
The three most important factors to consider while formulating beverages are taste, cost and interactions among ingredients (sweeteners, flavours, colours, preservatives, acidulants and texturisers).
Additional factors to consider are processing requirements (High process processing [HPP], hot fill, cold fill, Ultra-high temperature processing [UHT], non-thermal process), nutritional considerations (serving size, sugar reduction target, calorie targets), regulatory restrictions (labelling, “natural” perception, non-GMO, ingredient dose needs) and packaging requirements.
Matching the anticipated consumer sweetness profile for full, low and no sugar beverages is a key objective for formulators. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup commonly are used in full sugar beverage formulations. Sensory research associates these sweeteners with flavour notes such as sweet brown and functional properties such as bulking/mouthfeel. Emerging sweeteners are evaluated against the performance of sucrose.
Some sweeteners commonly used to achieve low and no sugar beverages include Ace K, aspartame and sucralose. Formulation challenges often associated with these sweeteners are a lack of a clean sweet taste and texture. Run your own taste test to compare diet products to full caloric beverages and note the effects. Other challenges can include, but are not limited to: sweetness time intensity, off flavours, solubility, adaptation and stability.
Fifty percent of consumers are reducing their sugar intake due to health and wellness concerns, according to the 2017 Mintel Sugar Reduction Trends findings. Beverage companies are responding to these consumer desires by removing sugar (nutritive sweeteners) and artificial sweeteners. Stevia is an emerging clean label sweetener. It is employed in several recent beverage launches to achieve partial/full sugar reduction in beverages.
Taste remains paramount when formulating beverages. Next-generation stevia products, such as Ingredion’s BESTEVIA® Reb M and Reb D stevia leaf sweeteners can be used to provide reduced-sugar products with sugar-like sweetness that has significantly less bitter aftertaste. The replacement of sugar with stevia can impact the mouthfeel of the product. Mouthfeel can be improved using bulk sweeteners (e.g. erythritol), hydrocolloids (e.g. the Ticaloid® product line or Simplistica® product line from TIC Gums). Sugar also acts as a carrier in powdered beverages and can be replaced with erythritol or in some cases prebiotic fibres. Ingredion’s DIAL-IN® Sweetness and Texture Technology, a rapid, robust consumer-centric approach to product development, can help you target and achieve your definition of product perfection faster than ever. The unique five-step process guides you in the right direction expertly and efficiently to help address the many challenges created when replacing sugar.
Ingredion has a wide range of cost-effective nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners for beverages. With the rise in awareness of “healthy” living, more and more consumers want to reduce calories by removing nutritive sweeteners. The most cost-effective solutions for reducing sugar are artificial high potency sweeteners (HPS) such as aspartame or sucralose. However proprietary research conducted by Ingredion indicates that many present-day consumers prefer sweeteners perceived as “natural” — a term our research showed is associated with stevia.
The stevia products that the Ingredion sensory testing indicates have a flavour profile most similar to sucrose are also more expensive than traditional stevia sweeteners. ENLITEN® Fusion stevia sweeteners were developed to deliver optimised sweetness profiles for targeted sugar-reduction levels, by identifying synergies of multiple steviol glycosides. They are a cost effective and clean label solution that can be used for sugar reduction across a range of sweetening levels.
Key strategies used while formulating with stevia in beverages:
Nutritive sweeteners: Ingredients that impart calories such as sugar.
Non-nutritive sweeteners: Ingredients that do not impart calories at common usage levels.
High potency sweeteners (HPS): Sweeteners that are several times sweeter than sugar and are used in low concentrations (ppm).
Parts per million (ppm): Just as percent means “out of one hundred,” parts per million, or ppm, means “out of a million.” For example, 100 ppm = 0.01%.
Sucrose sweetness equivalence (SSE): Sucrose is the established gold standard among sweeteners. Sweetness relative to sucrose is called SSE or sucrose sweetness equivalent. SSE is often shortened to just SE but maintains the same meaning.
Concentration response: Concentration response curves depict the relationship between attributes like sweetness versus concentration (usage levels). Nutritive sweeteners have a linear relationship (as concentration increases, sweetness intensity increases). Sweetness intensity for HPS, like stevia, are not linear. In HPS, sweetness intensity increases only up to a certain usage level and then the perceived sweetness hits a ceiling and does not increase further as the ingredient concentration increases.
Stevia rebaudiana is a perennial shrub native to Paraguay and Brazil that traditionally has been used as a sweetener by the local population. According to the research firm LMC International, stevia is the fastest growing sweetener in the world and helps food and beverage manufacturers reduce sugar — and calories — in sweetened products.
Regulatory approvals of stevia products are evolving. You should consult with your regulatory and legal counsel to determine its use in your market area.
The sweet components of the stevia leaf are called steviol glycosides, which are 200 to 300 times sweeter than sugar. According to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 52 different steviol glycosides have been identified and are found in varying concentrations. The most abundant steviol glycosides found in the leaf are Rebaudioside A and Stevioside. When used at high levels, these more abundant steviol glycosides can contribute a bitter, liquorice note to food and beverage applications. Proprietary Ingredion sensory mapping shows that high purity Rebaudioside M and D can be used as stand-alone sweeteners that feature a cleaner sweet taste than the previous generation of steviol glycosides.
Stevia sweeteners can be found primarily in beverages and table top applications, but are increasingly used in dairy, bakery and confectionary products. Stevia sweeteners have good heat and pH stability characteristics and are well tolerated in many food processes.
Because of the high sweetness intensity, stevia sweeteners are used at low levels in finished foods (part per million levels) and do not contribute to calories.
Stevia sweeteners can be produced by the following processes:
Extracted stevia leaf: Steviol glycosides are extracted from the leaves of the stevia plant by traditional water/alcohol extraction methods. The process involves steeping the dried leaves of the stevia plant in water, filtering and separating the liquid from the leaves and stems, purifying the plant extract with either water or food grade alcohol, and drying into a purified powder containing 95% steviol glycosides. Extraction is the most common manufacturing method for Reb A stevia. Due to the low content of Reb M and Reb D in the leaf, extraction is the most expensive process to obtain these next generation stevia sweeteners.
Fermented simple sugars: Products from this technology do not come from the stevia leaf. Simple sugar (sucrose or dextrose) sourced from other plants such as corn or sugar cane is the starter material. Specialty yeasts are used to convert the simple sugars to the same steviol glycosides found in stevia leaves. The yeast is then filtered away, and the remaining steviol glycosides are concentrated and purified. Due to the very inexpensive raw material, fermenting simple sugars is the least expensive process to obtain next generation stevia.
Bioconverted stevia leafs: Enzymatic or bioconverted steviol glycosides start with steviol glycosides extracted from the stevia plant (eg. Reb A and stevioside) that are then modified to different steviol glycosides, such as Reb M and Reb D, by adding one or more glucose molecules with the use of enzymes and a glucose source (sugar). The resulting end products are identical to those steviol glycosides found in the stevia leaf. The enzymatic conversion technology enables the most economical path to achieve next generation stevia products, while starting from the stevia leaf.
The stevia leaf contains many different molecules that all have different taste characteristics. The ones that have a sweet taste close to sugar can only be found in small amounts in the leaf. With such small quantities in the leaf, it is too expensive to be economically viable on a large scale.
As of June 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not established a formal definition for the word “natural” for food labelling.
Most stevia products are non-GMO. Check the documentation of your supplier to confirm.
Ingredion’s portfolio of stevia products is non-GMO, and many are non-GMO Project Verified.
Stevia sweeteners are 200 to 300 times sweeter than sugar. That translates into less land needed to grow stevia plants to get the equivalent sweetness of sucrose.
According to the International Stevia Council (ISC), stevia has an “excellent ‘green’ story,” in that it is up to five times more efficient to grow than sugar for the equivalent sweetness, which “greatly lowers the environmental impacts of food and beverage products.”
In the APAC, stevia sweeteners are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and can be used as defined by the FDA. Check with your regulatory agency and reference the FDA website for full details.
Individual countries will have varying regulations and restricted use levels that will need to be verified on a case-by-case basis by manufacturers.
Many countries base the usage level off the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Visit the JECFA website for details on how they define ADI.
Many countries in Asia Pacific regulate the usage level of stevia sweeteners by steviol equivalents. Steviol equivalents and the conversion factor are based off the molecular weight of steviol (the backbone of all the steviol glycosides), compared to the full steviol glycoside molecular weight.
Example on using conversion factors to calculate the amount of stevia sweetener allowed:
Health Canada states in its list of permitted sweeteners that beverage manufacturers are allowed 200 mg/l steviol equivalents in a formulation. You will want to check your regions regulations to determine the percent of Rebaudioside A you are allowed to add to your formulation.
Assuming 100% pure Rebaudioside A: 200 mg/l steviol equivalents calculates to 606 mg/l using the following equation: 100% Reb A*(steviol equivalent/conversion factor).
Equation with values added: 100% Reb A*(200/0.33) = 606 mg/l or 0.060% allowed in flavored beverage formulation.
|Steviol glycoside||Molecular weight||Conversion factor|
For a new food or beverage ingredient to be approved for use it must be generally recognised as safe by your applicable regulatory agencies. In 2008 and 2009, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) approved the use of high purity steviol glycosides (≥95%) in foods and beverages. In 2011, the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) authorised the use of high purity steviol glycosides (≥95%) in foods and beverages for the European Union.
Stevia sweeteners are approved in many countries, but companies must check the regulations as part of the product development process. Stevia sweetener regulation is continually changing. Here are links to some of the major regulatory agencies:
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